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HomeBig DataFinetune and Deploy Customized PaLiGemma Mannequin for Picture Duties

Finetune and Deploy Customized PaLiGemma Mannequin for Picture Duties


PaLiGemma is an open-source state-of-the-art mannequin launched alongside different merchandise at Google I/O 2024 and combines two different fashions developed by Google. Based mostly on open elements just like the SigLIP imaginative and prescient mannequin and the Gemma language mannequin, PaliGemma is a versatile and light-weight vision-language mannequin (VLM) that pulls inspiration from PaLI-3. It helps a number of languages and produces textual content output after accepting photographs and textual content as enter. It’s meant to function a mannequin for varied vision-language actions, together with textual content studying, object identification and segmentation, visible query answering, and captioning photographs and brief movies. 

In distinction to different VLMs which have had bother with object detection and segmentation, notably OpenAI’s GPT-4o, Google Gemini, and Anthropic’s Claude 3, PaliGemma gives all kinds of capabilities and could be finetuned for improved efficiency on explicit duties.

PaLiGemma Model for your Image Tasks

In at the moment’s weblog, we are going to be taught the pipeline for fine-tuning the PaLiGemma mannequin and deploying it over one of many service suppliers. All through the tutorial, we are going to use Roboflow for simple dataset entry within the desired format, Kaggle for loading the mannequin weights, and eventually, Azure Digital Machines. A Colab occasion with an NVIDIA T4 GPU can be ample for the duty.

Studying Goals

On this weblog, you’ll be taught:

  • Concerning the PaLiGemma mannequin and its elements.
  • arrange the setting for fine-tuning PaLiGemma.
  • Knowledge preparation strategies in JSONL format.
  • The method of downloading and configuring PaLiGemma mannequin weights.
  • Steps for fine-tuning PaLiGemma and saving the fine-tuned mannequin.
  • Deployment methods for the fine-tuned mannequin utilizing Azure Digital Machines.

This text was revealed as part of the Knowledge Science Blogathon.

Earlier than we Start

Earlier than studying this weblog, you need to be conversant in Python programming and the coaching course of for giant language fashions (LLMs). Though not obligatory, having a rudimentary understanding of JAX (or associated applied sciences like Keras) can be helpful when analyzing the pattern code snippets.

Additionally, for fine-tuning the PaLiGemma, we are going to comply with the under steps:

  1. Set up the required dependencies
  2. Obtain any picture dataset in PaliGemma JSONL format
  3. Obtain pre-trained PaliGemma weights and tokenizer from Kaggle
  4. Finetune PaLiGemma utilizing JAX
  5. Save our mannequin for later use
  6. Deploy the finetuned mannequin

Step 1: Set up and Setup the Mannequin

A. PaliGemma and Kaggle Setup

For first-time customers, we should request PaLiGemma entry by means of Kaggle and configure our API key, the steps of that are talked about under.

  1. Login or Signal Up on Kaggle: Log in to your Kaggle account or create a brand new one should you don’t have one.
  2. Request Entry to PaliGemma: Go to the PaLiGemma mannequin card on Kaggle, click on “Request Entry,” full the consent type, and settle for the phrases and situations.
  3. Generate Kaggle API Key: Open your Settings web page on Kaggle and click on “Create New Token” to obtain the `kaggle.json` file containing your API credentials.
  4. Add Kaggle API Key to Colab: In Colab, choose “Secrets and techniques” (🔑) within the left pane and add your Kaggle username and API key. Retailer your username underneath `KAGGLE_USERNAME` and your API key underneath `KAGGLE_KEY`.
  5. Retailer Credentials Securely: Guarantee your Kaggle API secret is saved securely and solely used as wanted to entry Kaggle datasets or fashions.
PaLiGemma Model

As soon as all is finished, set the setting variables as proven under.

import os
from google.colab import userdata

# Be aware: `userdata.get` is a Colab API. In case you're not utilizing Colab, set the env
# vars as acceptable or make your credentials accessible in ~/.kaggle/kaggle.json

os.environ["KAGGLE_USERNAME"] = userdata.get('KAGGLE_USERNAME')
os.environ["KAGGLE_KEY"] = userdata.get('KAGGLE_KEY')

B. Fetch the big_vision repository and dependencies

To fine-tune the PaLiGemma mannequin, we are going to use the big_vision challenge maintained by Google Analysis. The code under can set up the repository and corresponding dependencies in your notebooks.

import os
import sys

# TPUs with
if "COLAB_TPU_ADDR" in os.environ:
  elevate "It appears you might be utilizing Colab with distant TPUs which isn't supported."

# Fetch big_vision repository if python would not learn about it and set up
# dependencies wanted for this pocket book.
if not os.path.exists("big_vision_repo"):
  !git clone --quiet --branch=essential --depth=1 big_vision_repo

# Append big_vision code to python import path
if "big_vision_repo" not in sys.path:

# Set up lacking dependencies. Assume jax~=0.4.25 with GPU accessible.
!pip3 set up -q "overrides" "ml_collections" "einops~=0.7" "sentencepiece"

C. Import JAX and dependencies

The code under will import the mandatory frameworks, like JAX, to finish the mannequin setup.

import base64
import functools
import html
import io
import os
import warnings

import jax
import jax.numpy as jnp
import numpy as np
import ml_collections

import tensorflow as tf
import sentencepiece

from import show, HTML
from PIL import Picture

# Import mannequin definition from big_vision
from big_vision.fashions.proj.paligemma import paligemma
from big_vision.trainers.proj.paligemma import predict_fns

# Import large imaginative and prescient utilities
import big_vision.datasets.jsonl
import big_vision.utils
import big_vision.sharding

# Do not let TF use the GPU or TPUs
tf.config.set_visible_devices([], "GPU")
tf.config.set_visible_devices([], "TPU")

backend = jax.lib.xla_bridge.get_backend()
print(f"JAX model:  {jax.__version__}")
print(f"JAX platform: {backend.platform}")
print(f"JAX gadgets:  {jax.device_count()}")

Additionally learn: PaliGemma: Google’s New AI Sees Like You and Writes Like Shakespeare!

Step 2: Selected appropriate knowledge in your activity and put together it within the JSONL format

For any finetuning duties utilizing PaLiGemma, we want that knowledge within the PaLiGemma JSONL format. You may not be conversant in this format, as it’s not a typical knowledge format (like YOLO) for picture duties, however JSONL (JSON Strains) is usually used for coaching giant fashions as a result of it permits for environment friendly line-by-line processing. Under is an instance of the JSONL format for knowledge storage.

{"title": "John Doe", "age": 30, "metropolis": "New York"}
{"title": "Jane Smith", "age": 25, "metropolis": "Los Angeles"}
{"title": "Sam Brown", "age": 22, "metropolis": "Chicago"}

Creating the information in a JSONL format is straightforward, and under, I’m offering pattern code to do the identical. 

import json
import os

# Listing containing the photographs

# Dictionary containing the picture labels
labels = {
    "image1.jpg": "label1",
    "image2.jpg": "label2",
    "image3.jpg": "label3"

# Create an inventory of dictionaries with picture path and label
knowledge = []
for image_name, label in labels.objects():
    image_path = a part of(image_dir, image_name)
    knowledge.append({"image_path": image_path, "label": label})

# Write the information to a JSONL file
with open('images_labels.jsonl', 'w') as file:
    for entry in knowledge:
        file.write(json.dumps(entry) + 'n')

Nevertheless, right here we are going to use Roboflow for simple activity achievement. Roboflow has already offered full help to the PaLiGemma JSONL format, which can be utilized to entry any datasets from the Roboflow Universe. You should use any of the datasets in keeping with your activity necessities by utilizing the Roboflow API key. Under is a code snippet exhibiting the right way to obtain the identical.

#Set up the required dependencies to obtain and parse a dataset
!pip set up roboflow supervision

from google.colab import userdata
from roboflow import Roboflow


rf = Roboflow(api_key=ROBOFLOW_API_KEY)
challenge = rf.workspace("workspace-user-id").challenge("sample-project-name")
model = challenge.model(#enterversionnumber)
dataset = model.obtain("PaliGemma")

Now that we’ve got efficiently accomplished the mannequin setup and imported the information within the desired format and platform, we are able to get hold of the PaLiGemma weights to finetune the mannequin additional.

Step 3: Obtain and Configure PaLiGemma Mannequin Weights

This step includes downloading the PaLiGemma weights from Kaggle. For straightforward computation in restricted sources, we are going to use the paligemma-3b-pt-224 model. JAX/FLAX PaliGemma 3B is on the market in three totally different variations, differing in enter picture decision (224, 448, and 896) and enter textual content sequence size (128, 512, and 512 tokens, respectively).

The float16 model of the mannequin checkpoint could be downloaded from Kaggle by operating the next code. This course of could also be a bit time-consuming.

import os
import kagglehub

MODEL_PATH = "./pt_224_128.params.f16.npz"
if not os.path.exists(MODEL_PATH):
  MODEL_PATH = kagglehub.model_download
  ('google/paligemma/jax/paligemma-3b-pt-224', 'paligemma-3b-pt-224.f16.npz')
  print(f"Mannequin path: {MODEL_PATH}")

TOKENIZER_PATH = "./paligemma_tokenizer.mannequin"
if not os.path.exists(TOKENIZER_PATPaLiGemma modelH):
  print("Downloading the mannequin tokenizer...")
  !gsutil cp gs://big_vision/paligemma_tokenizer.mannequin {TOKENIZER_PATH}
  print(f"Tokenizer path: {TOKENIZER_PATH}")

if not os.path.exists(DATA_DIR):
  print("Downloading the dataset...")
  !gsutil -m -q cp -n -r gs://longcap100/ .
  print(f"Knowledge path: {DATA_DIR}")

The subsequent step would require configuring and shifting the mannequin to suit with the Colab T4 GPU. To arrange the mannequin, begin by initializing the `model_config` as a `FrozenConfigDict,` which helps freeze sure parameters and reduces reminiscence utilization. Then, create an occasion of the `PaliGemma Mannequin` class, utilizing `model_config` for its settings. Load the mannequin parameters into RAM and outline a decode perform to pattern outputs from the mannequin. As soon as finished, the mannequin can then be moved to the T4 GPU. The under code will information each steps.

# Outline mannequin
model_config = ml_collections.FrozenConfigDict({
    "llm": {"vocab_size": 257_152},
    "img": {"variant": "So400m/14", "pool_type": "none", "scan": True,
     "dtype_mm": "float16"}
mannequin = paligemma.Mannequin(**model_config)
tokenizer = sentencepiece.SentencePieceProcessor(TOKENIZER_PATH)

# Load params - this could take as much as 1 minute in T4 colabs.
params = paligemma.load(None, MODEL_PATH, model_config)

# Outline `decode` perform to pattern outputs from the mannequin.
decode_fn = predict_fns.get_all(mannequin)['decode']
decode = functools.partial(decode_fn, gadgets=jax.gadgets(), 

#Transfer mannequin to T4 GPU
# Create a pytree masks of the trainable params.
def is_trainable_param(title, param):  # pylint: disable=unused-argument
  if title.startswith("llm/layers/attn/"):  return True
  if title.startswith("llm/"):              return False
  if title.startswith("img/"):              return False
  elevate ValueError(f"Surprising param title {title}")
trainable_mask = big_vision.utils.tree_map_with_names(is_trainable_param, params)

# If multiple system is on the market (e.g. a number of GPUs) the parameters can
# be sharded throughout them to cut back HBM utilization per system.
mesh = jax.sharding.Mesh(jax.gadgets(), ("knowledge"))

data_sharding = jax.sharding.NamedSharding(
    mesh, jax.sharding.PartitionSpec("knowledge"))

params_sharding = big_vision.sharding.infer_sharding(
    params, technique=[('.*', 'fsdp(axis="data")')], mesh=mesh)

# Sure: Some donated buffers aren't usable.
    "ignore", message="Some donated buffers weren't usable")

@functools.partial(jax.jit, donate_argnums=(0,), static_argnums=(1,))
def maybe_cast_to_f32(params, trainable):
  return p, m: p.astype(jnp.float32) if m else p,
                      params, trainable)

# Loading all params in simultaneous - albeit a lot quicker and extra succinct -
# requires extra RAM than the T4 colab runtimes have by default.
# As an alternative we do it param by param.
params, treedef = jax.tree.flatten(params)
sharding_leaves = jax.tree.leaves(params_sharding)
trainable_leaves = jax.tree.leaves(trainable_mask)
for idx, (sharding, trainable) in enumerate(zip(sharding_leaves, 
  params[idx] = big_vision.utils.reshard(params[idx], sharding)
  params[idx] = maybe_cast_to_f32(params[idx], trainable)
params = jax.tree.unflatten(treedef, params)

# Print params to point out what the mannequin is manufactured from.
def parameter_overview(params):
  for path, arr in big_vision.utils.tree_flatten_with_names(params)[0]:
    print(f"{path:80s} {str(arr.form):22s} {arr.dtype}")

print(" == Mannequin params == ")

This step has accomplished all of the requirements for our fine-tuning course of, so we are able to proceed to the following step.

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Step 4: Finetuning PaLiGemma

Earlier than continuing to the fine-tuning step, a number of extra checks and preprocessing steps should be carried out. These are commonplace procedures, and their codes can be lengthy, so they aren’t thought of within the present scope. Particulars of those could be present in extra open-source sources talked about in subsequent sections. Regardless, a broad overview of the steps is talked about under.

  1. Create Mannequin Inputs
    • Normalize picture knowledge by changing photographs to greyscale, eradicating the alpha layer, and resizing them to 224×224 pixels.
    • Tokenize textual content by including flags to mark whether or not tokens are prefixes or suffixes to be used throughout coaching and analysis.
    • Take away tokens after the end-of-sequence (EOS) token and return the remaining decoded tokens.
  2. Create Coaching and Validation Iterators
    • Outline a coaching iterator to course of knowledge in chunks, shuffle examples, and repeat them for a number of epochs. Preprocess photographs and tokenize textual content with acceptable flags.
    •  Outline a validation iterator to course of validation knowledge in an ordered method, preprocess photographs, and tokenize textual content.
  3. View Coaching Examples
    • Show a random collection of coaching photographs and their descriptions to grasp the information on which the mannequin is being skilled.
  4. Outline Coaching and Analysis Loops
    • Implement a stochastic gradient descent (SGD) coaching loop to optimize the mannequin parameters. Calculate the loss per instance, excluding prefixes and padded tokens from the loss calculation.
    • Implement an analysis loop to make predictions on the validation dataset, deal with padding for small datasets, and guarantee solely precise examples are counted within the output.

With all these steps finished, we are able to now finetune the mannequin. The under code will obtain the identical. It runs the coaching loop for the mannequin over 64 steps, displaying the training charge (lr) and loss charge at every step. Each 16 steps, it outputs the mannequin’s predictions for a similar set of photographs, permitting you to watch the advance within the mannequin’s skill to foretell descriptions. Early within the coaching, predictions could comprise errors like repeated or incomplete sentences, however as coaching progresses, the accuracy of the descriptions improves. By step 64, the mannequin’s predictions ought to carefully match the descriptions from the coaching knowledge. 



train_data_it = train_data_iterator()

sched_fn = big_vision.utils.create_learning_rate_schedule(
    total_steps=TRAIN_STEPS+1, base=LEARNING_RATE,
    decay_type="cosine", warmup_percent=0.10)

for step in vary(1, TRAIN_STEPS+1):
  # Make checklist of N coaching examples.
  examples = [next(train_data_it) for _ in range(BATCH_SIZE)]

  # Convert checklist of examples right into a dict of np.arrays and cargo onto gadgets.
  batch = *x: np.stack(x), *examples)
  batch = big_vision.utils.reshard(batch, data_sharding)

  # Coaching step and report coaching loss
  learning_rate = sched_fn(step)
  params, loss = update_fn(params, batch, learning_rate)

  loss = jax.device_get(loss)
  print(f"step: {step:second}/{TRAIN_STEPS:second}   lr: {learning_rate:.5f}   loss: {loss:.4f}")

  if (step % EVAL_STEPS) == 0:
    print(f"Mannequin predictions at step {step}")
    html_out = ""
    for picture, caption in make_predictions(
        validation_data_iterator(), num_examples=4, batch_size=4):
      html_out += render_example(picture, caption)

Now you can check the fine-tuned mannequin utilizing a pre-defined perform known as `make_predictions`, which processes photographs iteratively and performs inference on every one. This perform can be utilized to check our fine-tuned object detection mannequin.

print("Mannequin predictions")
html_out = ""
for picture, caption in make_predictions(validation_data_iterator(), batch_size=4):
  html_out += render_example(picture, caption)

Under is a pattern of the mannequin outputs over every iteration. For the present goal, the fineunting was finished for 30 steps, because it was carried out for a demo goal. The dataset, variety of steps, and different hyperparameters may even change based mostly in your utilization and necessities.


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Step 5: Saving the Finetuned Mannequin

As soon as finetuning is accomplished and the mannequin predictions have been checked, to make use of the identical mannequin additional or to have the ability to deploy it for the later phases, it may be saved utilizing the under code:

flat, _ = big_vision.utils.tree_flatten_with_names(params)
with open("/content material/fine-tuned-PaliGemma-3b-pt-224.f16.npz", "wb") as f:
  np.savez(f, **{okay: v for okay, v in flat})

Step 6: Deploying the Finetuned Mannequin

For deploying, we are going to depend on the Roboflow Inference server and deploy it on an AWS EC2 occasion. The Roboflow Inference Server permits you to deploy pc imaginative and prescient fashions to numerous gadgets, together with AWS EC2. The Inference Server depends on Docker to run. In case you don’t have already got Docker put in on the system(s) on which you need to run inference, set up it by following the official Docker set up directions. Upon getting Docker put in, run the next command to obtain the Roboflow Inference Server in your AWS EC2.

pip set up inference supervision

Now, the Roboflow Inference server will probably be operating, and you should utilize the finetuned mannequin within the EC2 server.



On this weblog, we’ve got walked by means of the excellent technique of fine-tuning and deploying the PaLiGemma mannequin, a cutting-edge vision-language mannequin from Google. Beginning with putting in the mandatory dependencies and establishing our surroundings, we leveraged varied instruments and platforms, together with Kaggle for accessing mannequin weights, Roboflow for dataset preparation, and Azure Digital Machines for deployment. By following these steps, you’ll be able to harness the facility of PaLiGemma for a spread of vision-language duties corresponding to object detection, picture captioning, and visible query answering. I hope this information supplies a transparent and sensible pathway to reinforce your tasks with superior AI capabilities.


Along with this weblog, listed here are a number of extra attention-grabbing reads and inspirations for this weblog.

Key Takeaways

  • Integration of Superior Fashions: PaLiGemma combines the capabilities of SigLIP and Gemma, offering a flexible and light-weight vision-language mannequin that excels in a number of languages and duties.
  • Enhanced Imaginative and prescient-Language Capabilities: In contrast to many different VLMs, PaLiGemma successfully handles object detection and segmentation, making it a strong alternative for varied vision-language actions, together with textual content studying, visible query answering, and picture/video captioning.
  • Step-by-Step High-quality-Tuning Course of: The tutorial supplies an in depth, step-by-step information to fine-tuning PaLiGemma, protecting important steps corresponding to establishing dependencies, getting ready knowledge, and configuring mannequin weights utilizing JAX.
  • Environment friendly Use of Assets: The tutorial demonstrates environment friendly useful resource administration and sensible deployment methods by using instruments like Roboflow for dataset preparation, Kaggle for mannequin weights, and Azure Digital Machines for deployment.
  • Sensible Utility and Deployment: The information culminates in deploying the fine-tuned mannequin on an EC2 server, showcasing the right way to apply theoretical data to sensible conditions and enabling customers to leverage PaLiGemma’s capabilities in real-world eventualities.

The media proven on this article aren’t owned by Analytics Vidhya and is used on the Writer’s discretion.

Incessantly Requested Questions

 Q1. What stipulations do I must fine-tune and deploy the PaLiGemma mannequin?

A. You should be conversant in Python programming and have expertise coaching giant language fashions (LLMs). Information of JAX or Keras is useful for understanding the code snippets. Moreover, you’ll want entry to Kaggle to obtain the mannequin weights and datasets and an Azure account to deploy the mannequin.

Q2. How do I entry the PaLiGemma mannequin and its weights?

A. First, log in to your Kaggle account and request entry to the PaLiGemma mannequin by means of its mannequin card on Kaggle. Settle for the phrases and generate an API key out of your Kaggle settings. Obtain the mannequin weights utilizing this API key and retailer it securely in your Colab occasion to entry the mannequin.

Q3. What format ought to my dataset be in for fine-tuning PaLiGemma?

A. Your dataset needs to be in JSONL format, the place every line within the file represents a JSON object. For instance:
{"image_path": "/path/to/image1.jpg", "label": "label1"} {"image_path": "/path/to/image2.jpg", "label": "label2"}
You should use instruments like Roboflow to arrange and obtain datasets within the required JSONL format.

This fall. How do I configure the PaLiGemma mannequin to suit my particular coaching setting?

A. It is advisable to set the mannequin configuration to be suitable together with your setting, corresponding to a Colab T4 GPU. Load the mannequin weights and tokenizer, and appropriately arrange the mannequin parameters and knowledge sharding. Use JAX and the mandatory libraries to arrange the mannequin for coaching.

Q5. How can I deploy my fine-tuned PaLiGemma mannequin utilizing Azure?

A. After fine-tuning your mannequin, save the mannequin parameters. Arrange an Azure Digital Machine (VM) to host your mannequin. Switch the fine-tuned mannequin to the VM and use Azure’s deployment companies to make it accessible for inference. The particular deployment steps on Azure will rely in your VM configuration and most well-liked deployment technique.



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